Plastic Space


Part I

space in space
space in space in space

Space - a determined activated region in indefinite threedimensionality.

Threedimensionality does not necessarily create space.
Threedimensionality not necessarily is space.

A single point, line and plane can determine space.
A single point line and plane (twodimensional theoretical) can determine space. A phenomenon of the third dimension.

Within the void of the threedimensionality I define space, a matter of the forth dimension.

The means?
Painting, Sculpture, Architecture.
Mass, color, light.
Textures, lines, focuses.

The means: Spaceradiation.

A „thing“ radiating space - Spaceradiator
Spaceradiator - Spacedeterminator

„thing“ denotes approximately what is expressed exactly by the german word GEBILDE.

Architecture -
the creation of space by the means of building.

Hence - architecture - the building of spacedeterminators - elements radiating space.

The means of architecture - the means of building:
Digging. Piling up. Forming.

Of what?
There are no specific building materials, nor architectural ones.

A tree
A rock in a desert
A cloud over the great plains

Space comes into being. Natural space.
Spaceradiators of nature, The habitation of the gods.
The ghosts of the wood, the sacred grove.
The Olymp, the Fuji, the Kailas, the Navajo Mountain.
Focal points. Ruling over the land of their worshippers.
But a limited rule. Static.

Farther goes the cloud. And Thor governs with thunder and lightining.

The sun and the moon.
Infinite presence. Infinite control.

All that has been. That was for hunters and gatherers.
MAN starts to govern space. Man starts to BUILD.
And the seat of god disappears from the threedimensional reality of our world.

A new kind of man appears and takes over control.
The builder.
Der Bauer.
Bauer und Bauer.
Bauer der Felder und Bauer der Gebilde.
Man builds his own Mount Olymp.

The first furrow with the plough. A field. Space comes into being.
The trees fall. The woods are opened up. Space comes into being.

Manmade space.

You dig a hole.
Pile up some rocks.
Put up a pole.
Architecture comes into being.
Spacedeterminators. Made by man.

As to shelter!

Architecture is a shelter. An old commonplace.
A definition of pimps.
Use. Of course we can use architecture as a shelter.
We use a tree and a cave as a shelter too.
But a tree is a tree. And a cave is a cave.
And architecture is architecture.

Architecture is use-less!

Human beings.

Another commonplace: We build for human beings.
Great discovery, thank you.
Of course we build for human beings, we do not build for bugs.

Architecture is the creation of space for human beings by human beings.

There is no difference between outside and inside space.
There is only space.

Space has no direction. It develops, free, in all directions.

A space-determinator can be turned in any position.
The frame of reference? - The higher order of space.

therefore sometimes natural: plain, island, mountains, the sea.

Totality of space and threedimensionality are asymptotic.
Only space creates again space. By means of space.
Point, line, plane. Special phenomena.
Twodimensionality does not exist.

Space, scale and movement.

The orders of space are in themselves continuous too.
Together with the micro-space I observe the macro-space, the universe.
A static observation. Our eye reaches the horizon and the moon.
An indefinite number of micro-spaces can be experienced but there will
be always the same experience of the macrocosmos.

To see the other side of the moon I have to move.
To experience the spaces beyond my eyesight I have to move.
To experience regions, continents, the world I have to move.
To experience all orders of spaces, spaceobserver and space move.
Space is constantly in motion.
What stays static is threedimensionality.

Continuity of spaces.
The system of manmade spaces embraces the whole world.

Total space.

Order of space.

A question of scale.
A question of relation.
A question of content.

Continuity of space - vertically - from macro-space to micro-space.
Continuity of space - horizontally - from space to space.
Continuity of space - centrifugal - from determination to determination.

Together building the totality of space.
Total space.

Crystallization of spaces.
Focal points of the orders of space.
Focal points of the world we live in. Sometimes marked.
As with a building.

Order of space.
Vertical continuity.

Within the vertical continuity of space there is a hierarchy.
But there are no borders. The totality of space is embraced always.

Macro-spaces and micro-spaces.

The macrocosmos, the universe. Upper limit. Highest order of space.
Not made by man. Nature.
Static. Timeles. Never changing.

Microspaces. Lower limit. Lowest order of space.
Made by man.
Dynamic. Shortliving. Ever changing.

Inbetween the orders of space.
Inbetween the variety of static and dynamic spacerelations.

Each order of space has its determinator.
Each order of space is governed by the higher orders of space.

Space is governed by spaces.
Spaces are governed by space.
Space is governed by space.

Order of space.
Horizontal continuity.

Within the orders of space there is continuity.
The continuity of space to space, of the same order, of different order, embracing the whole world, embracing the totality of space.

Order of space.
Centrifugal continuity.

The relation of the determinators lie in their determined context.

Order of spirituality. Inner predetermination of space.
Spiritual hierarchy of spaces.

Order of space.

Vertical spacecontinuity.
Macro-spaces to micro-spaces.
or, Universe-world-land-region-city-house-room-furnishing-tools.

Horizontal spacecontinuity.
From space to space.
or, world and moon, land and land, region and region, city and city,
house and house, room and room, chair and chair, cup and cup.

cup and world, cup and chair, cup and room, cup and house,
cup and city, cup and world.

or at random; house and city, room and city, city and region.

Centrifugal spacecontinuity.
From determination to determination.

Manmade space.

Total space embraces the whole universe.
A continuous system of manmade spaces governs our world.
Nature no longer determines the areas of our activities.
Manmade are the spaces of our time.

Yet, still is a spacedetermining factor the geography, the morphology of our earth.
But the order of space it represents, the scale it defines are of no direct relationship to the human being anymore.

The space to be lived in is a manmade space today.

Architecture, sculpture and painting become one.

The totality of space, governed by "things".



We build the manmade space.



Buildings spring into being.
They rise high up into the air, they hover over the ground.
Some dominating, strong and radiant.
Some intimate, indifferent, subordinated under the ordering rule of the focal structures. Everybody can build them, there are no architects.
Architects give form to the focal structures, to the ruling spacedeterminators.
Under the strong and ordering rule of the higher orders of space and their determinators, buildings can grow and decay, can expand and contract, can live a life of their own.
So can man, in a space of living of his own invention.
We give back to man the joy of building.


The realization of the orders of space by manmade structures, by building.

Lower orders of space governed by higher ones.
The multitude of microspaces governed by a number of dominant spaceradiators, spacedeterminators.
Livingspace develops freely, buildings, vehicles, human beings and animals move around, grow, live and decay within an order, an order by the means of the orders of space, a space determined, radiated by the spaceradiators.

The location of the spaceradiators: the focal points.
Focal points of space and focal points of spirituality, of live.

Focal points, points of crystallization within the continuity of space.

Focal points of the horizontal spacecontinuity.
Focal points of the vertical spacecontinuity.
Focal points of the centrifugal spacecontinuity.

These focal points can crystallize independently
or the focal points of the three orders can fall together.
A focal point of higher order comes into being.
A spaceradiator governing other spaceradiators.
Space governs space.

Focal points can be marked.
As with a building. Or a void.
Or just be felt.

The relationship of the focal points gives me the special and spiritual organization of life.



Thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture, College of environmental design in the graduate division of the University of California, Berkeley
Deposited in the University Library, July 1960
"The written part of this thesis forms only a minor part of the work carried out for it. The major part consisted of models and drawings, some of them presented here thru photographs and photostatic reproductions.
The work thus carried out consists mainly of the following kinds: Drawings. Models. Large-scale structures. Drawings: mainly brush drawings and pen drawings in india ink and ink on paper. Color drawings in watercolor and oil on paper. Small-scale models: A multitude of models has been carried out in various sizes. The main material was fired and unfired clay. Large-scale structures: At the yard of 2232 Piedmont, Berkley, Calif. a number of large-scale structures of a maximum size of 16’ has been erected to show the plastic principles of space and its determination, giving the observer the oportunity to walk thru an area of about 2000 squarefeet of space determined by spaceradiators. The construction material were wood, welded metal and plaster.
Die Grammatik folgt der Schreibweise des Originalmanuskripts. Rechtschreibfehler wurden nicht korrigiert.